3 solutions to Global Warming

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The 3 scenarios of Global Warming SOLUTION - all 3 are cost effective !

1. Stanford Study of 100% RENEWABLES Energy future for USA : Capital cost , such as the cost of building renewable energy power plants,  would be more than made up for over time. It would reduce power demand by about 37 percent, since fuel costs would be zero. It would also create manufacturing, installation and technology jobs .
 50 States | 50 Plans | Interactive       139 Countries

The 100% Energy Revolution (2. Greenpeace  & 3. IEA ) Scenarios:
Worldwide, By 2050, there will be huge savings in fuel supply costs, especially in transport and industry, with the phase-out of fossil fuels.
Because renewable energy has no fuel supply costs, the cost savings amount to $42 trillion or $1.1 trillion/year.
So the additional investment costs are covered entirely (107%) by fuel supply cost savings.

Renewable energy accounts for 87% of all energy jobs by 2030;

bulletsolar photovoltaic will provide 9.7 million jobsequal to the number of coal jobs today,
bulletwhile employment in the wind sector will increase 10-fold from its current (700,000 in 2015) to over 7.8 million – twice as many as the oil- and gas industry combined.

2050

New York State     

California

     

Washington

 

              USA

 

India

megawatts

Nbr

 Megawatts

Nbr

MegaWatts

Nbr

MegaWatts  

Nbr

GIGAWatts  

Nbr

GIGAWatts
 5 wind turbines onshore 4,020 20,100   24,723 127,550   7,550 39,614   261,055 401   73,253 157
 5 wind turbines offshore 12,770 63,850   7,808 39,042   2,627 13,136   117,954 227   14,540 29
100 concentrated solar plants 387 38,700 1,226 122,642       1,036 94   1,809 106
50 photovoltaic power plants 828 41,400 2,141 107,473 794 39,736   28,900 313   42,633 464
5-kilowatt residential rooftop photovoltaic 5 million 25,000 19.1 million 96,126 3,554,018 17,770   98,977,081 104   56,137,819 58
100-kilowatt commercial/government rooftop photovoltaic systems 500,000 50,000 1.29 million 129,424 255,210 25,521   4,530,833 95   3,870,790 80
100 geothermal plants 36 3600 72 9,188 9.5 951   65 6   2.8 0.25
0.75 wave devices 1,910 1432.5 4,964 3,723 1,284 963   27,875 5   20,359 3.5
1 tidal turbines 2,600 2,600 3,371 3,371 873 873   350 ? 0.086   700 0.17
1,300 hydroelectric power plants, of which most exist 7 more 9,100   343
(0 more)
13,630   1.3 22,930   78 51   36 23
Cost ~261,000   652,169   161,494   $9,238,729m

*1,296

  $6,835,659m 922
A new study finds that it is technically and economically feasible to power California or New York State by wind, water and sunlight (WWS). The plan, shows the way to a sustainable, almost free energy supply that creates jobs and saves billions of dollars in pollution-related costs.

It fulfills all of the state's:

bullettransportation,
bulletelectric power,
bulletindustry heating and cooling energy with renewable energy.

It calculates:

bulletthe number of new devices 
bulletjobs created,
bulletamount of land and ocean areas required,
bulletpolicies needed for such an infrastructure change.
bulletair pollution mortality and morbidity impacts
bulletcosts based on multiple years of air quality data.

* Along with solar etc we would need 379,000 WIND TURBINES an area 40x20 miles 4.082 billion megawatt-hours (the average annual US electricity consumption) divided by 7,008 megawatt-hours of annual wind energy production per wind turbine equals 583,000 onshore turbines would take up an area of 30x40 miles, Rhode Island.
http://www.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/CaliforniaWWS.pdf see page 9
Source: https://woods.stanford.edu/news-events/news/envisioning-nation-run-clean-energy

What it takes for California,               Washington State

Myths and Realities about Wind, Water, and Sun
Versus Current Fuels


          Water Defense .org                  

Vancouver commits to run on 100% renewable energy within 20 years
More than 50 cities have announced they are on their way to 100% renewable energy including
San Diego and San Francisco, Sydney and Copenhagen.
Some are aiming for 2020, others by 2030 or 2035.

           Stanford in Scientific American

Air pollution–related deaths would decline by about 4,000  plus health costs savings totaling $33 billion – every year paying for the new power infrastructure needed within about 10-17 years.

bullet40% from wind power (NY),
bullet38% from  solar (NY) and
bullet22% from  hydroelectric, geothermal, tidal and wave energy. (NY)
bulletAll vehicles would be electric .
bulletHome heating and air-conditioning:  Electricity-powered air- and ground-source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, heat exchangers and backup electric resistance heaters would replace natural gas and oil .
bulletHome hot water:  Air- and ground-source heat pump water heaters powered by electricity and solar hot water preheaters .
bulletIndustrial processes: High temperatures would be obtained with electricity and hydrogen combustion.

How will U.S. Utilities Survive?

back to Energy Solutions and CARBON SEQUESTRATION

 

Don't let the
Environmental Summit,
Dec 2015 Paris,
be another Crime Scene

QUESTIONABLE PREDICTIONS of 100% Energy Revolution (Greenpeace  & IEA ) Scenarios:

bullet"By 2030 the only investment in fossil fuels is in gas power plants which are switched from natural gas to renewable hydrogen between 2035 and 2050.
bullet18% BIOMASS by 2050 "

-- the Stanford Study has no "oxygen burning" & and is more likely

Wind turbines on the Tug Hill plateau in upstate New York.

  139 Countries

139 Countries Power Share

100% Renewables Solution by 2050  - Wind, Water & Sunlight World Electric Power Generation. All rows add up to 100%.

Country

On- shore wind

Off-shore wind

Wave

Geoth-ermal

Hydro-electric

Tidal

Residential Rooftop PV

Commercial Rooftop  PV

Utility PV

Concentrated Solar CSP

Albania

1.50

0.28

2.00

0.00

35.10

0.45

7.54

9.59

43.54

0.00

Algeria

1.25

0.00

0.92

0.00

0.25

0.02

9.33

10.33

62.90

15.00

Angola

8.00

1.70

3.00

0.00

3.64

0.09

36.92

27.57

8.58

10.50

Argentina

30.00

20.00

2.80

1.07

7.27

0.01

8.04

9.22

11.59

10.00

Armenia

18.50

0.00

0.00

0.64

16.96

0.00

5.09

5.46

33.35

20.00

Australia

30.00

6.20

5.00

0.40

4.93

0.14

4.83

5.98

32.53

10.00

Austria

27.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

22.68

0.00

5.12

5.55

39.45

0.20

Azerbaijan

45.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

4.42

0.00

6.91

8.89

27.78

7.00

Bahrain

1.00

8.00

1.25

0.00

0.00

0.19

3.32

5.41

60.83

20.00

Bangladesh

15.00

0.00

0.65

0.00

0.27

0.09

16.55

6.59

55.85

5.00

Belarus

45.00

0.00

0.00

0.02

0.01

0.00

0.77

1.43

51.77

1.00

Belgium

8.00

18.00

0.08

0.00

1.83

0.03

4.56

4.75

62.75

0.00

Benin

29.20

0.30

0.50

0.00

0.02

0.38

11.96

5.81

41.83

10.00

Bolivia

25.00

0.00

0.00

14.98

3.17

0.00

20.12

8.61

23.12

5.00

Bosnia and Herzegovina

10.50

1.20

0.22

0.00

21.86

0.27

6.85

9.43

44.67

5.00

Botswana

30.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

5.53

8.61

40.85

15.00

Brazil

0.85

17.00

0.97

0.00

11.31

0.01

7.40

10.21

42.24

10.00

Brunei Darussalam

5.00

11.50

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

7.00

8.78

57.72

10.00

Bulgaria

7.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

12.23

0.08

1.56

4.40

74.72

0.00

Cambodia

30.00

7.90

2.00

0.00

2.68

0.19

26.02

12.15

14.05

5.00

Cameroon

15.00

1.50

1.00

0.00

5.19

0.18

10.03

5.47

46.63

15.00

Canada

37.50

21.00

2.00

1.91

16.24

0.21

1.46

1.69

17.99

0.00

Chile

25.00

10.00

1.00

3.15

6.67

0.05

5.33

6.92

36.89

5.00

China

16.00

12.90

0.20

0.05

4.33

0.02

3.65

4.52

49.34

9.00

Chinese Taipei

2.00

38.00

0.70

27.14

2.08

0.01

1.48

3.11

25.48

0.00

Colombia

25.00

14.10

1.00

0.00

14.43

0.38

9.38

6.26

24.45

5.00

Congo

10.00

12.00

1.90

0.00

4.90

1.01

27.71

21.61

20.88

0.00

Congo, Dem. Republic

10.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.11

0.04

6.75

1.73

56.37

25.00

Costa Rica

3.00

1.10

1.00

26.68

21.71

0.31

17.05

17.39

6.76

5.00

Cote d'Ivoire

22.40

7.00

2.50

0.00

3.62

0.15

11.23

7.09

45.91

0.10

Croatia

30.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

11.74

0.13

2.41

4.84

48.87

1.00

Cuba

22.93

15.00

2.00

0.00

0.29

0.12

13.34

8.40

32.92

5.00

Cyprus

20.00

13.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

0.51

13.02

14.06

28.41

10.00

Czech Republic

25.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

4.39

0.00

4.14

6.64

59.84

0.00

Denmark

28.00

57.00

3.00

0.00

0.03

0.08

1.59

1.64

8.66

0.00

Dominican Republic

25.00

5.00

2.00

9.94

4.63

0.20

24.12

20.01

4.11

5.00

Ecuador

35.00

1.00

2.00

0.33

10.20

0.57

25.22

13.89

11.79

0.00

Egypt

20.00

0.25

1.00

0.00

1.36

0.01

11.72

8.07

42.58

15.00

El Salvador

10.00

2.00

3.00

32.07

8.25

0.43

17.79

10.09

11.37

5.00

Eritrea

15.00

5.00

2.00

0.00

0.00

2.19

52.53

17.26

1.02

5.00

Estonia

60.00

20.66

2.00

0.00

0.12

0.37

0.78

1.29

14.77

0.00

Ethiopia

16.00

0.00

0.00

4.08

2.51

0.00

17.74

5.12

36.55

18.00

Finland

32.00

41.00

1.50

0.00

5.57

0.04

0.25

0.56

19.09

0.00

France

30.00

25.00

1.25

0.02

8.17

0.16

10.36

9.71

14.59

0.75

Gabon

15.00

20.00

2.00

0.00

2.82

0.41

5.97

7.33

46.47

0.00

Georgia

18.00

4.00

2.00

0.00

30.01

0.28

5.21

7.30

33.21

0.00

Germany

18.00

17.00

0.35

0.01

2.20

0.00

5.72

5.49

51.23

0.00

Ghana

21.10

4.00

1.00

0.00

8.25

0.13

8.87

6.34

50.07

0.25

Gibraltar

0.03

35.00

0.50

0.00

0.00

1.17

0.37

0.75

62.15

0.04

Greece

30.00

4.00

1.00

2.40

10.05

0.07

14.19

9.14

24.45

4.70

Guatemala

7.00

3.00

1.00

23.68

5.82

0.14

22.54

10.38

16.43

10.00

Haiti

30.00

11.00

1.00

0.00

1.05

0.43

28.58

6.32

11.61

10.00

Honduras

25.00

7.50

4.00

11.17

5.78

0.26

17.22

6.65

14.92

7.50

Hong Kong, China

0.25

35.00

1.20

0.00

0.00

0.04

3.18

3.71

41.62

15.00

Hungary

1.70

0.00

0.00

2.15

0.18

0.00

3.01

4.37

88.59

0.00

Iceland

39.03

6.00

2.00

23.56

29.05

0.36

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

India

17.00

3.20

0.38

0.03

2.54

0.02

6.32

8.71

50.30

11.50

Indonesia

6.30

10.00

2.00

3.88

1.15

0.01

8.73

8.66

49.27

10.00

Iran, Islamic Rep

11.00

2.50

0.20

0.00

2.15

0.01

2.49

2.27

61.39

18.00

Iraq

25.00

0.00

0.10

0.00

4.56

0.00

10.95

6.53

41.96

10.90

Ireland

46.00

37.00

1.80

0.00

2.87

0.13

2.36

2.88

6.95

0.00

Israel

10.00

3.00

0.00

0.00

0.02

0.07

5.71

13.65

47.54

20.00

Italy

11.00

0.90

2.00

0.64

7.77

0.01

6.27

6.31

63.11

2.00

Jamaica

10.00

20.00

5.00

0.00

0.42

0.52

16.44

12.59

35.04

0.00

Japan

4.50

6.00

1.00

0.56

10.51

0.23

7.38

11.36

56.46

2.00

Jordan

30.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.12

0.20

9.39

9.13

36.17

15.00

Kazakhstan

46.50

6.50

1.00

0.00

1.56

0.02

2.56

4.09

37.78

0.00

Kenya

21.00

7.00

1.00

10.75

2.67

0.08

14.56

7.28

28.66

7.00

Korea, Dem Rep. North

25.00

12.50

2.00

0.00

10.49

0.80

1.84

0.57

46.80

0.00

Korea, Rep S.

3.50

12.00

0.60

0.00

1.30

0.13

2.10

4.99

74.13

1.25

Kosovo

15.00

0.00

0.00

37.31

10.31

0.00

2.96

2.86

31.56

0.00

Kuwait

5.00

6.80

1.00

0.00

0.00

0.05

1.39

3.18

54.57

28.00

Kyrgyzstan

15.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

26.62

0.00

8.31

6.03

44.03

0.00

Latvia

35.00

14.50

3.90

0.00

12.16

0.19

0.63

1.17

32.45

0.00

Lebanon

10.00

8.00

0.25

0.00

2.70

0.24

4.41

8.62

60.78

5.00

Libya

26.50

3.50

2.00

0.00

0.00

0.08

5.63

7.87

39.42

15.00

Lithuania

15.00

50.00

0.50

0.00

6.49

0.16

1.78

2.36

23.72

0.00

Luxembourg

7.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

18.28

0.00

5.27

4.86

64.59

0.00

Macedonia, Rep

40.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

8.58

0.00

5.62

7.98

37.82

0.00

Malaysia

14.00

8.90

1.00

0.00

2.52

0.02

4.07

10.71

58.78

0.00

Malta

1.00

10.00

5.00

0.00

0.00

0.79

4.14

7.94

66.13

5.00

Mexico

25.00

7.90

1.00

2.40

3.19

0.01

10.41

14.09

23.00

13.00

Moldova, Republic

45.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.14

0.00

3.91

4.55

45.40

0.00

Mongolia

38.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.22

0.00

2.75

3.20

55.83

0.00

Montenegro

10.00

15.00

2.00

0.00

31.95

1.19

3.98

6.55

29.33

0.00

Morocco

22.50

5.00

2.00

0.00

3.66

0.05

8.41

7.49

45.89

5.00

Mozambique

25.00

2.00

2.00

0.00

10.48

2.37

13.56

4.77

34.81

5.00

Myanmar

10.00

12.00

0.20

0.00

7.86

0.27

20.72

9.56

34.38

5.00

Namibia

14.00

3.25

2.00

0.00

4.52

0.45

3.39

4.00

63.39

5.00

Nepal

15.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

3.21

0.00

11.59

3.77

56.43

10.00

Netherlands

5.00

60.00

0.30

0.00

0.03

0.02

1.60

1.62

31.43

0.00

Netherlands Antilles

2.00

12.50

4.00

0.00

0.00

0.52

3.47

3.21

74.29

0.00

New Zealand

30.00

13.25

1.00

13.29

19.43

0.36

2.77

3.72

16.18

0.00

Nicaragua

10.00

2.00

1.00

18.39

22.49

0.55

23.75

10.01

6.81

5.00

Nigeria

20.00

0.00

0.10

0.00

0.77

0.01

9.65

9.94

39.53

20.00

Norway

14.00

10.00

0.55

0.00

72.86

0.42

0.36

0.71

1.10

0.00

Oman

18.00

3.90

1.00

0.00

0.00

0.04

1.52

1.98

58.57

15.00

Pakistan

2.50

2.25

0.30

0.00

2.93

0.01

12.23

6.65

58.12

15.00

Panama

30.00

5.00

4.00

0.00

11.85

0.78

11.31

10.69

26.38

0.00

Paraguay

4.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

67.83

0.00

17.11

8.03

3.03

0.00

Peru

25.00

0.00

1.00

6.79

10.09

0.07

21.70

13.55

19.80

2.00

Philippines

5.00

10.00

5.00

12.29

4.55

0.29

31.52

17.27

14.09

0.00

Poland

43.00

29.00

0.35

0.16

1.96

0.02

4.83

10.00

10.67

0.00

Portugal

35.00

15.00

1.00

0.63

20.40

0.87

7.37

9.62

7.37

2.75

Qatar

3.50

7.90

0.50

0.00

0.00

0.05

1.21

2.83

77.50

6.50

Romania

24.40

22.00

0.25

0.26

10.07

0.04

1.58

5.36

36.04

0.00

Russian Federation

48.80

22.00

2.00

0.08

4.53

0.02

0.73

1.33

20.51

0.00

Saudi Arabia

11.00

0.00

0.50

0.00

0.00

0.01

3.25

4.33

45.92

35.00

Senegal

20.00

5.00

2.00

0.00

0.95

0.34

18.48

9.04

34.19

10.00

Serbia

25.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

10.34

0.00

2.39

4.97

57.31

0.00

Singapore

0.10

0.48

0.17

6.17

0.00

0.02

3.68

3.56

85.82

0.00

Slovak Republic

35.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

12.03

0.00

2.28

3.87

46.81

0.00

Slovenia

30.00

2.80

0.50

2.01

14.41

0.27

2.34

3.46

44.20

0.00

South Africa

20.00

7.00

1.00

0.00

1.13

0.01

1.56

2.56

56.74

10.00

Spain

25.70

10.00

1.00

0.07

11.86

0.30

10.58

9.42

20.10

10.98

Sri Lanka

20.00

22.00

2.00

0.00

5.79

0.09

18.13

12.22

19.77

0.00

Sudan

12.00

7.35

1.00

0.00

8.04

0.09

21.04

13.39

17.09

20.00

Sweden

55.00

19.00

1.00

0.00

22.01

0.07

0.73

0.97

1.23

0.00

Switzerland

15.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

39.64

0.00

4.41

7.91

33.04

0.00

Syrian Arab Republic

35.00

1.50

0.00

0.00

6.45

0.10

11.82

5.79

32.34

7.00

Tajikistan

30.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

44.61

0.00

16.60

8.00

0.80

0.00

Tanzania, United  Rep

18.55

7.00

1.00

0.00

1.11

0.49

8.38

3.63

49.84

10.00

Thailand

11.00

5.40

1.00

0.07

1.45

0.01

3.42

4.38

68.27

5.00

Togo

21.50

2.00

0.60

0.00

1.67

0.59

11.74

3.71

53.20

5.00

Trinidad and Tobago

1.00

48.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

0.18

3.67

3.55

41.60

1.00

Tunisia

23.00

4.00

1.00

0.00

0.24

0.08

5.12

5.60

55.96

5.00

Turkey

16.00

0.05

0.50

0.83

14.46

0.02

10.90

10.16

39.08

8.00

Turkmenistan

16.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.43

2.80

79.76

0.00

Ukraine

25.00

30.00

1.00

0.00

2.50

0.01

1.46

2.05

37.98

0.00

United Arab Emirates

4.00

4.00

0.50

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.79

1.31

79.39

10.00

United Kingdom

20.00

65.00

0.80

0.00

1.73

2.19

1.09

2.96

6.22

0.00

USA

30.92

17.50

0.37

0.45

3.92

0.01

8.04

7.36

24.14

7.30

Uruguay

30.00

13.50

2.00

0.00

16.52

0.26

7.56

10.52

19.64

0.00

Uzbekistan

4.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

1.50

0.00

3.48

2.05

88.97

0.00

Venezuela

15.80

20.00

1.00

0.00

12.98

0.02

6.92

6.00

27.03

10.25

Vietnam

0.01

30.00

1.90

0.00

7.78

0.01

8.40

4.91

33.04

13.95

Yemen

4.00

5.00

2.00

1.20

0.00

0.16

23.13

7.03

44.47

13.00

Zambia

20.00

0.00

0.00

0.78

8.88

0.00

12.98

7.73

31.62

18.00

Zimbabwe

21.50

0.00

0.00

0.00

2.95

0.00

6.42

6.09

39.04

24.00

World average

19.37

12.90

0.72

0.74

4.84

0.07

5.55

5.97

42.17

7.67

Source. Utility PV plants, andCSP plants require a new footprint onland. Rooftop PV does not take up new land. The total new land footprint required for the plants, averaged 0.29% of the land area of the countries, mostly forutility PV plants. This does not account for the decrease in footprint from eliminating the current energy infrastructure, which includes the footprint for mining, transporting, and refining fossil fuels and uranium and for growing, transporting, and refining biofuels and bioenergy.CSP is assumed to be viable only in countries with significant direct solar radiation.
 links

Onshore wind turbines requires ~0.65% of the 139-country land area and can also be used for multiple purposes, such as agricultural land, grazing land, and open space.

bulletCREATES: 24.0 million 35-year construction jobs and 26.5 million 35-year operation jobs,
                                      outweighing by ~22.1 million the 28.4 million jobs lost in the fossil energy sector.
bulletEliminates ~4.6 (1.3-8.0) million premature air pollution mortalities per year today and 3.3 (0.8-7.0) million/yr in 2050, avoiding ~$25.4 ($4.3-$69.7) trillion/year in 2050 air-pollution damage costs (2013 dollars).
bulletEliminates ~ (9.6-36) trillion/year in 2050 global warming costs (2013 dollars) due to greenhouse-gas and particle emissions.